Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook

Section 13: Serology

13.10 Human Immunodeficiency Virus Serology

Last Updated:2023
13.10.1 Introduction

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a positive‐sense, enveloped retrovirus in the lentivirus subgroup. Two distinct HIV viruses exist, HIV‐1 and HIV‐2, and among these two groups, there is a great deal of genetic diversity…

13.10.2 HIV Screening Immunoassays

As discussed in procedure 13.10.1, the recommended initial test of the HIV algorithm is a fourth‐generation HIV immunoassay that measures antibodies against HIV‐1 and HIV‐2 and detects the p24 antigen. These assays will indicate whether a sample is…

13.10.3 HIV‐1/2 Supplemental Immunoassays

HIV supplemental immunoassays are the second step in the testing algorithm for laboratory diagnosis of HIV infection. These assays have two purposes: (i) to confirm the presence of HIV antibodies as detected by the first‐step HIV immunoassay screens and (...


Section Editor: Elitza S. Theel

Editors in Chief: Amy L. Leber and Carey-Ann D. Burnham

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